① 益生菌是活着的微生物，适量使用可以给予宿主健康上的好处；② 本文描述了益生菌在气道中可能的作用机制，特别着重于它们调节上皮屏障功能的能力及其与免疫系统的相互作用模式；③ 益生菌，主要是乳酸杆菌，可以促进紧密连接和粘附连接的表达和调节，从而恢复有缺陷的上皮屏障；④ 这些益生菌通过模式识别受体(如类toll受体)与上皮屏障和免疫细胞相互作用，激活后可刺激或抑制各种免疫反应。
Probiotics for the Airways: potential to improve epithelial and immune homeostasis
Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when applied in adequate amounts. The therapeutic effects of probiotics have been mostly studied in the gastrointestinal tract, but recent evidence points towards the potential of these bacteria to prevent and/or treat chronic airway diseases. In this review, possible mechanisms of action of probiotics in the airways are described, with a particular focus on their capacity to modulate the epithelial barrier function and their mode of interaction with the immune system. Indeed, probiotic bacteria, mostly lactobacilli, can promote the expression and regulation of tight junctions and adherence junctions, resulting in the restoration of a defective epithelial barrier.These bacteria interact with the epithelial barrier and immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors, which upon activation can stimulate or suppress various immune responses. Finally, the clinical potential of probiotics to treat inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the difference between their mode of application (e.g. oral or nasal) are discussed here.
Katleen Martens, Msc
Clinical Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
Katleen Martens, Msc; Benoit Pugin, PhD; Ilke De Boeck, Msc; Irina Spacova, PhD;
Brecht Steelant, PhD; Sven F. Seys, PhD; Sarah Lebeer, PhD; Peter W. Hellings, PhD,MD